November 8, 2019

Capsaicin in chili pepper

Chilies are the berries of the genus Capsicum (family: Solanaceae) and they are used variously as a pungent flavor in food, natural plant colour, pharmaceutical ingredient and as sprays for riot control and self-defense.

Chilies have a hot taste. This comes from capsaicinoid compounds that are amide acids from vanilinamine and fatty acid chain branched at C9 and C11. Capsaicinoid consists of capsaicin, dihydrocapsaicin, homocapsaicin, and homodihydro-capsaicin. 69% of Capsaicinoid is capsaicin, which is a marker compound and has an affect on stimulating hair growth.

Capsaicin is a compound found in chili p fruit and responsible for their burning and irritant effect. Capsaicin is lead in bitterness chili fruit, thus red chili more hot taste than green chili, because the content of capsaicin of red chili two or three fold more than green chili fruits.

Capsaicin was first purified in 1876 but its structure started to be described only in 1919. Capsaicin presents a nonpolar phenolic structure and thus cannot be solubilized in water. The main solvents used to extract and maintain capsaicin properties are nonpolar solvents such as ether, benzene, dimethyl sulfoxide and acetone, but ethanol can also be used as a solvent due to its mixed properties.

Capsaicin is also the active principle which accounts for the pharmaceutical properties of chilies. It has been used as a topical analgesic against arthritis pain and inflammation. Capsaicin binds to the same group of nociceptors which also leads to the sensation of pain from heat and acid. It has also been reported to show anticancer effect.

Capsaicin has also been reported to show protective effects against high cholesterol levels and obesity. Capsaicin and other members of the capsaicinoids group produce a large number of physiological and pharmacological effects on the gastrointestinal tract, the cardiovascular and respiratory system as well as the sensory and thermoregulation systems.
Capsaicin in chili pepper

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