November 22, 2021

Recombinant DNA

Recombinant DNA technology is playing a vital role in improving health conditions by developing new vaccines and pharmaceuticals. The treatment strategies are also improved by developing diagnostic kits, monitoring devices, and new therapeutic approaches.

In agriculture and food industry, recombinant DNA techniques are applied to improve 
*Agronomic characteristics of crops, such as yield and resistance to diseases and pests,
*Processing parameters, e.g., optimum solids levels or increased shelf life, and
*Food quality, including factors such as aroma, taste, and nutritional value

Recombinant DNA techniques are capable of introducing genetic changes into food organisms that are more predictable than those introduced through conventional breeding techniques.

Recombinant DNA (rDNA) molecules refers to DNA molecules formed by laboratory methods of genetic recombination (such as molecular cloning) to bring together genetic material from multiple sources, creating sequences that would not otherwise be found in the genome. It involves the method by which DNA of the donor organism (target DNA) is cut into fragments with the help of Restriction Enzymes and insert one of these fragments into the DNA of the host.

By using recombinant DNA techniques, it has become possible to direct the movements of specific and useful segments of genetic material between unrelated organisms, thereby crossing the barriers between plants, animals, and microorganisms.

Recombinant DNA was first achieved in 1973 Herbert Boyer, of the University of California at San Francisco, and Stanley Cohen, at Stanford University, who used E. coli restriction enzymes to insert foreign DNA into plasmids.

The application of recombinant techniques does not lead to any additional structural elements. Recombinant DNA consists of the same building blocks as any other DNA present in nature; the compounds are attached via the same type of covalent (N-glycosides, phosphodiesters) and non-covalent (hydrogen and π - interactions) bonds.
Recombinant DNA

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