December 17, 2023

Lactoperoxidase: Antimicrobial Milk Enzyme

Lactoperoxidase, a heme-containing glycoprotein, is found in the milk of most mammals and various bodily fluids such as tears and saliva. This antimicrobial protein is produced by mammary, salivary, and mucosal glands.

In its catalytic center, this enzyme binds a heme prosthetic group derived from protoporphyrin IX, placing it in the category of mammalian heme-containing peroxidase (XPO) enzymes.

Activated by H2O2, lactoperoxidase has been utilized to impede the growth of microbes in raw milk, particularly in regions where refrigeration is not feasible.

The lactoperoxidase system plays a vital role in the innate immune system by eradicating bacteria in milk and mucosal secretions, suggesting potential therapeutic applications through system enhancement.

This system exhibits antimicrobial efficacy against a diverse range of microorganisms responsible for milk spoilage and diseases, including bacteria, the HIV-1 virus, molds, yeasts, mycoplasma, and protozoa. Notably, the lactoperoxidase system does not support the growth of pathogenic microorganisms once the bacteriostatic effect has concluded.
Lactoperoxidase: Antimicrobial Milk Enzyme

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