They are simply known as sugars. Same sugars occur in nature and others are synthetic.
Monosaccharides are single-sugar molecules that are made up of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen atoms in the ration 1:2:1.
A hydrolysis reaction separates disaccharides into monosaccharides. During hydrolysis, the addition of molecule water splits the bond between the two sugar molecules, providing the H and OH groups necessary for the sugars to exist as monosaccharaides.
Monosaccharides are the simplest form of carbohydrates. They are sweet, require no digestion, and can be absorbed directly into the bloodstream from the small intestine. They include glucose, fructose, and galactose. Although the structures of these sugars differ, they all have one thing in common: each contains six carbons atoms.
Glucose, also called dextrose, is the form of carbohydrate to which all other forms are converted for eventual metabolism. Glucose is one of the most abundant organic compounds on earth. Glucose exists in some fruits such as grapes, figs, and dates.
Fructose also called levulose or fruit sugar is found with glucose in many fruits and in honey. Industrially, it can be produced from sucrose or inulin.
Galactose is a product of the digestion of milk. It is one of two single sugars that are bound together to make up the sugar of milk.
What are monosaccharide sugars?